Tuesday 3 April 2007 by Craig Tibbitts. 1 comment
To Flanders Fields, 1917, Bapaume, Battles

Men of 30th Battalion AIF amonst the ruins of Bapaume, the day they entered the town (AWM E00361) Men of 30th Battalion AIF amonst the ruins of Bapaume, the day they entered the town (AWM E00361)

At the beginning of 1917 victory seemed nowhere in sight. However for a while, from late February, hopes were lifted. Along the Somme front line and elsewhere, the Germans began to withdraw several kilometres to their newly-developed defensive zone which the British dubbed “the Hindenburg Line”. This apparent retreat was a tonic for the allies who advanced in pursuit. But it was an illusion; the Germans were just staging a voluntary withdrawal to stronger and better prepared positions. It was against these solid defences at a point near the village of Bullecourt that four Australian divisions, one after the other, were thrown during April and May 1917.

Basic Map: Bapaume to Bullecourt from the Official History Vol IV, p 156

Download detailed original map of the capture of Lagnicourt on 26 March (PDF file)

A group of German engineers preparing mines in a French village before withdrawing to the Hindenburg Line. C01094

The capture of Bapaume

Bapaume was a large German-held town almost within sight of the Australians’ trench lines throughout the winter months on the Somme. Suddenly, from 24 February 1917 it became evident that the enemy was retiring. The British advanced after them, and by the morning of 17 March Australian troops reached the outskirts of Bapaume. The soldiers’ heightened spirits were exemplified by the band of the 5th Australian Brigade playing amid the burning ruins as they marched into the old town square on the 19th. However booby traps and time bombs had been left behind; one exploded in the town hall a week later burying men and killing twenty-five.

'Rarely did Australian soldiers experience such exhilaration as on that morning when, with the Somme morass finally behind them, they skirmished across green fields.' C.E.W. Bean, ANZAC to Amiens

 

Band of the 5th Australian Infantry Brigade passing through the Town Square of Bapaume on 19 March, playing the 'Victoria March'. E00426

Fighting up to Bullecourt

From February 1917 the German forces facing the Australians began withdrawing to the Hindenburg Line. The Australians pursued them and there was heavy fighting around a network of small villages. Vaulx-Vraucourt, Morchies and Beaumetz were among those captured. But there was stiffer resistance during the attempts to take Lagnicourt, Noreuil and Hermies; the initial hasty attempt to take Noreuil was repulsed. In some of these sharp actions over three weeks five Australians won the Victoria Cross. Finally, by 9 April the vital string of villages leading up to the Hindenburg Line was in British hands. Before the Australians, and within the broad German line of entrenchments and barbed-wire, stood the fortified village of Bullecourt.

An 18 pounder of the Australian Field Artillery behind Vaulx, preparing to shell Lagnicourt. E00430

'Fletch & Dan coming back to Igaree Corner from Lagnicourt' a drawing by Will Dyson, 1917. ART02236.015

Ruins of Lagnicourt Church 1917 (AWM E04580). E04580

Two Australian soldiers among the ruins of Lagnicourt, April 1917 (AWM C00470). C00470

Read more about Bapaume to Bullecourt:

Anzac to Amiens by C. E. W. Bean, Chapter 19 (30 pages)

Official History by C. E. W. Bean, Vol IV, Chapters 4-7

Comments

Peter Skinner

Guys,

In the War Diaries of Grandfather Dennis Grieve 14th Battery 5th Field Artillery Brigade, (Vaulx, Lagnicourt) several mentions are made of a "Chinese Bombartment" being laid on.

Does anyone know what this was?

Thank you,

Peter Skinner

Editor's comment: Hello Peter. 'Chinese attacks' were diversions intended to draw enemy attention away from the real area to be attacked. A Chinese bombardment would hit an area with the hope that the enemy would think it preparatory to a big attack, and cause him to move forces there, hopefully weakening the area where the real one would go in. At Passchendaele, Chinese attacks also included the use of dummy soldiers (difficult to detect from the real thing at night), which would be used to give the impression of troops massing for an assault. Sometimes they even used elaborate systems of ropes and pulleys to make the dummies move around and pop up suddenly in no-man's-land. This was also intended to unsettle and unnerve the enemy, keeping him on edge, expecting an imminent attack. Very British...