Crown and Anchor cloth from Stalag XVIIIA POW Camp, Wolfsberg, Austria

Places
Accession Number REL/11907
Collection type Heraldry
Object type Heraldry
Physical description Calico
Maker Unknown
Place made Austria: Karnten, Wolfsberg
Date made 1941
Conflict Second World War, 1939-1945
Description

Rectangular drawstring calico bag illustrated on one side to resemble a Crown and Anchor playing mat. Green painted lines divide the bag into six equal sections, which are decorated with (left to right, top row) red diamond with one dot; red crown with two dots; red heart with three dots and (left to right, bottom row) black club with four dots; black anchor with five dots; black spade with six dots. Written in black over the Crown are the words 'STALAG XVIIIA WOLFSBERG AUSTRIA 1941'. The remainder of the playing surface is covered with hundreds of names of the allied inmates of Wolfsberg Prisoner of War camp. Most have included their serial number and battalion or regiment. The majority of names are Australian Imperial Force (AIF), New Zealand Expeditionary Force (NZEF) or British Expeditionary Force (BEF), with one or two RAAF names and a single United States Army Air Force representative. The bag has some staining but the overall condition is good. It was found lying by the side of the Princes Highway at Dandenong, Victoria, in 1974.

History / Summary

From 1941, Stalag XVIIIA at Wolfsberg in Austria was host to thousands of allied prisoners - mainly British, Australian and New Zealand – captured in the Greek Campaign. This playing mat for the game of Crown and Anchor was created in Wolfsberg by an unknown prisoner and signed by many of his inmates; correspondence with veterans suggests a New Zealander may have been responsible.

Crown and Anchor is a simple dice gambling game employing three dice with the numbers replaced by the symbols found on the playing mat. Players place their wagers on the symbol of their choice and are paid according to the throw of the dice; they are paid even money if one bet comes up, 2 to 1 if two bets are rolled and 3 to 1 if three are rolled.

The names are as follows:

Diamond square:
J D Caskie, Div HQ, NZEF; J Sheffield, R E; B Groom, 2/6 Bn AIF; M Ellis, 2/6 BN AIF; J Dunbar, 2/6 Bn AIF; L D J Sutherland, 18 BN NZEF; H Harrison, HQG, AIF; W Burchett, R E, BEF; C Armstrong, RASC; A Lambley, RA; J Stevenson, NZEF; S Thompson, AMPC; M Farrington, 21 Bn, NZEF; S Studwick, Life Guards; E F Brodie, 2/1 Field Reg, AIF; B Gough, 1 Remounts; A Pulford, 24 Bn, NZEF; T Farrelly, HQG, AIF; A Downie, RAC; F R Russell, 4 QO Hussars; R Brewis, 2/8 Bn, AIF; J E Fearom, Div Cav, NZEF; B Lacy, 19 Bn, NZEF; M Chanter, 17 BHQ, AIF; A Bryoon, NH; J Carter, Div Cav, NZEF; J Shaw, 2/2 FA, AIF; F Hydes, RA; W McLellan, RNR; J Steele, RHA; G T Hampton, RA; J H Nicholas, 2/4 Bn, AIF; M J Spillane, MAC, AIF; S Hodges, 21 Bn, NZEF; G Miller, 2/1 Bn, AIF; A Peterson, 22 Bn, NZEF; J Waterson, RCOS; JEW Lamb, 22 Bat, NZEF; R Tyler, 18 Bn, NZEF; H A Lee, NH; S O’Reilly, 2/1 Bn, AIF; F Cooper, 2./6 Bn, AIF; J H Wilson, 2/11 Bn, AIF; G L Ball, RHA; T W Cameron, Royal Signals; G Stormheim, 2/1 Bn, AIF; J O’Brien, RTC, BEF; H Jackson, 25 Bn, NZEF; R McFarlane, 2/6 Bn, AIF.

Club Square:
S Copestick, RE; J Keats, RAC; R H Bush, 1 ASC, AIF; F Workman, 4 Field Am, NZEF; M Parlon, 2/5 Bn, AIF; G A Smith, Div Cav NZ; N Stoke, NH; J Newman, RE; E R Bevan, 2/10 Bn, AIF; A L Barlow, RHA; W Toward, NH; C Rear, 4 QO Hussars; A Freeman, RASC; J Moore, 2/1 FA, AIF; R Stern, 21 Bn, NZEF; W E Raponi, 28 Maori Bn NZEF; H Malcolm, 2/2 Bn, AIF; B J Wilson, 22 Bn, NZEF; A Dewar, 2/6 Bn, AIF; W Andrews, 2 Sherwood Foresters; E Farriers, RHA, BEF; D Christopher, Royal Signals; J Ruddock, 24 Bn, NZEF; A Baker, RA; C Jaques, Royal Signals; C G Raham, 28 Maori Bn, NZEF; A E Alliman, ASC, AIF; A Gymgell, RHA; M Collins, 4FA, NZEF; W J Scully, 2/1 Bn, AIF; L J Ford, 2/6 Bn, AIF; C Bowden, RA; R Munro, ASC, AIF; D S Balfour, RAVC; C J Dixon, 23 Bn, NZEF; R Tietjen, 25 Bn, NZEF; F Reilly, 2/5 Bn, AIF; M V Collins, 24th Bat, NZEF; J Campbell, RAC; B Impey, NM; C Langdon, RAC; F Morris, Royal Signals; W A Griffin, 21 Bn, NZEF; S Smith, 2/5 Bn, AIF; E H Giesen, 2/1 Bn, AIF; R G Holdom, 22 Bn, NZEF; D C Munns, RASC; J D Meade, 2/6 Bn, AIF; E O Glynn, 2/2 Bn, AIF; T P Jones, 21 Bn, NZEF; D B Motion, 24 Bn, NZEF; L Pepperell, 2/2 FA, AIF; W Styles, RASC; C R Kelly, 21 Bn, NZEF; A H Evans, Royal Signals; J A Brook, 2/2 FA, AIF; G Elliman, RE; N Campbell, RASC.

Crown Square:
STALAG XVIII A WOLFSBERG, AUSTRIA 1941 –
Lieut E F Jobb, American Air Force; W Gaunt, 2 Bn Black Watch; W Hughes, D Jackson, Highland Light Infantry; Capt J H Ledgerwood, Padre, 19 Bn NZEF; J Arbuckle, RASC; J Baxter, 19 Bn, NZEF; W Smith, 4 Hussars; C Lewis, Div Cav, NZEF; Rangi Rauhime, 28 Maori BN, NZEF; J Rynehart, 2/1 Bn, AIF; F Winn, NH; L A Winter, 21 Bn, NZEF; E Johnson, Royal Signals; B Thompson, r RNFS, NZEF; J Bavister, 21 Bn, NZEF; F A Moore, Royal Fusiliers; Lt Col Myers, 2/6 Bn, AIF; R H Lodge, Con Sigs, AIF; R V McDonald, 27 MG Bn, NZEF; T Jacks, 2/6 Bn, AIF; C Brown, MDC, NZEF; T Symes, RE; L M Cosseboom, 24 Bn, NZEF; T C Smith, 2 Div RAG, BEF; G Lake, 5 Field Am, NZEF; R Roberts, RAAF; K Cowan, 22 Bn, NZEF; R Fowler, 7th Field Coy E, NZEF; E Baty, 4 Field Am, NZEF; W R Lay, 2/6 Bn, AIF; B L Fenton, 6 Div ASC, AIF; C Neal, AIF; A E Hardy, 4 Field Reg, NZEF; F Evans, RE, BEF; K H Williams, 2/1 Field Coy, AUF; A Reynolds, 2/11 Bn, AIF; P F Chitty, 2/2 Field Am, AIF.

Anchor Square:
S/M T J Fenton, 2/1 Bn AIF; R Dykes, 2/5 Bn, AIF; J Price, 1 Welch Reg, BEF; A Joblin, 7 Field Coy, NZEF; W Carter, RHA; J A Young, 2/7 Bn, AIF; A Murray, 2/6 Bn, AIF; A McLarty, 2/7 Bn, AIF; P B Hart, RHA; W Harefield, 22 Bn, NZEF; G R Clanford, 1 CTSC, AIF; H Peet, 154 Bte, 52 Reg, RA, BEF; J Lewis, Royal Signals; J Waddington, RA, BEF; H F Padget, ASC, AIF; C Brown, 2/2 Bn, AIF; S Richardson, RASC; R B Kelly, RE, BEF; W M Harper, RASC, BEF; J J Campbell, 21 Bn, NZEF; D A Male, 2/6 Bn, AIF; H C Tate, Div Sigs, NZEF; G P McDonald, 7 AN Reg, NZEF; G Wade, 2/1 RAE, AIF; W Perry, 20 Bn, NZEF; R Morris, 1 Welch R; F Galloway, 2/11 Bn, AIF; V Hawkins, 2/6 Bn, AIF; F C Barron, 19 Bn, NZEF; E T A Butcher, 21 Bn, NZEF; T Hawes, Beds & Herts; H Owen, RE; E J Twist, 2/4 Bn, AIF; W Lawton, RA; C Jones, HMS Gloucester; T R Te Kani, 28 Maori Bn, NZZEF; J E Martin, 2/1 Bn, AIF; G V Lynch, 6 Div ASC, AIF; C B McLachlan, 1 AMG, AIF; D Howard, 1 ACS, AIF; A Clarke, 2/4 Bn, AIF; A H Bennett, RE; J Cassidy, 1 AC, AIF; W McKinley, 19 Bn, NZEF; H Crellin, RASC; A Campbell, RE; H Greville, Royal Signals; C Rule, 21 Bn, NZEF; E Turney, Beds & Herts; W James, RASC, BEF; R Starr, 2/3 Bn, AIF; W J Cromie, 2/4 Bn, AIF; S Backhouse, 2/2 Bn, AIF; D Brundell, 20 Bn, NZEF; M Newland, 25 Bn, NZEF; G E Rushton, 2/12 Bn, AIF; G Gander, RA; L Kilian, 2/1 Bn, AIF; S/S W Gibb, RE, BEF; F G Wells, ASC, DAS, NZEF; R Shuttleworth, REME; M Matahiki, 28 Maori Bn, NZEF; W Cobb, RE; L Fisher, 27 MG Bn, NZEF; F Cliff, 2/1 Bn, AIF; D G Nix, 2/1 FA, AIF; R Atkins, RHA; W Farmer, RE; H Austin, Royal Signals; J H Lynch, RA; R Simmons, RASC; W Woodward, 26 Bn, NZEF; P J Stevens, RMT, NZEF; E W Harris, AHQ, AIF.

Heart Square:
R S Aitkins, 18 BN, NZEF; A G White, NZEF, 18 Batt; J Robin, 28 Maori Bn, NZEF, W Gunn, RTC, J H Martin, RA; F Milton, Recce Reg; E J Bascombe, 2/6 Bn, AIF; A T Scott, ASC, AIF; N Allbon, 24 Bn, NZEF; H Dewes, 28 Maori Bn, NZEF; G W Fergurson, ASC, AIF; W J McDonald, 6 Field Coy, NZEF; S Goldfinch, 234 RA Batt, RA; A McNeil, A & S Highlanders; G Harvery, 4 RMT, NZEF; V Donohoe, 2/6 Bn, AIF; W Price, 1 Welch Reg, BEF; C J Hutton, 2/7 Bn, AIF; E Noble, RAOC, BEF; G Drewitt, 52 Bn Commandoes; J Sunley, 22 Bn, NZEF; A McCallum, 19 Bn, NZEF; D George, Durham Light Infantry; F Kay, Scots Greys; T Carmichael, 18th Bn, NZEF; M Goggin, 22 Bn, NZEF; W S Broom, RA; A A E Williams, 2/1 Bn, AIF; E J McDonald, 2/1 Bn, AIF; W A Borovich, 18 Bn, NZEF; G Seymour, 2/7 Bn, AIF; J Wishart, 2/6 Bn, AIF; R Dooley, 2/1 Bn, AIF; R Norman, 2/2 Bn, AIF; W Tier, 21 Bn, NZEF; J Hilford, 24 Bn, NZEF; L A Williams, 2/2 Bn, AIF; C Tolchard, 4 FA, NZEF; J A Thomaine, 2/7 Bn, AIF; CH Cooper, RTC; W Foggon, 2/11 Bn, AIF; N Perry, Royal Signals; G Florence, RTC; E Malling, RASC; R T Hirst, RMT, NZEF; L Lawson, RHA; J Bilborough, 6 Div ASC, AIF; F S Barnett, RASC; J Beckett, RAOC; V Abraitis, RASC; W Miller, Div Sigs, NZEF; F Lyons, CSO, AIF; J F Hassell, 2/2 FBK, AIF.

Spade Square:
P Harper, CG, AIF; P Mallet, 2/2 Bn, AIF; F D McGrath, 6 Field Cy E, NZEF; W T Rich, Royal Sigs; G Boardman, RA; W D Keith, 21 Bn, NZEF; L Almond, Remounts; E Stroner, RASC; L James, 7 A-T Reg, NZEF; W Keary, 2/4 Bn, AIF; A Dyer, 2/7 Bn, AIF; A M Lowther, 6 Field Coy NZEF; W Johnston, RASC; M Chanter, 17 AHQ, AIF; R A Dunlop, 7 A-T Reg, NZEF; J W Barker, 7 A-T Reg, NZEF; W Nicholls, 4 Q O Hussars; J Bright, CMP; L O’Sullivan, 20 Bn, NZEF; M McGregor, 28 Maori Bn, NZEF; C R Werner, 21 Bn, NZEF; L Francis, 6 Field Coy, NZEF; J Durkin, 2/6 Bn, AIF; C H Wiles, NH; W W Fountain, SFA, NZEF; F Jones, 20 Bn, NZEF; D O’Sullivan, RASC; W Ray, 2/1 Bn, AIF; G Fraser, 2/7 Bn, AIF; L D Mumford, 6 Field Coy, NZEF; D Lawson, RM; F F Chitty, 6 Field Coy, NZEF; K Davis, KRR; R F Lee, 2/1 Bn, AIF; J Allport, 19 Bn, NZEF; K B Sackley, RAOC; R F Lee, 2/1 Bn, AIF; W Waugiech, 6 Field Coy, NZEF; W J Branch, RA, A Bedford, 2/4 Bn, AIF; M McDonald, 28 Maori Bn, NZEF; R H Jarvis, RE; C Boden, 2/8 Bn, AIF; J Morris, RA; E L Black, 6 Div ASC, AIF; H Milner, RTC; J Baxter, RA; G J Hunt, RA; D McEwan, RASC; P Campbell, RASC; S I Webster, 2/3 Bn, AIF; J Terrange, 2/3 Bn, AIF; G A Young, 4 Q O Hussars; J G Tasker, 4 Q O Hussars.