Australian prisoners of war
The First World War
In 1914 hardly any Australians knew what being a prisoner of war meant. In the Boer War a few dozen Australians had been captured and quickly released.
During the First World War over 4,000 Australians became prisoners. Captured by the Ottoman Turks in the Middle East and by the Germans in Europe, they were the first Australians to learn about humiliation, ill-treatment, hunger and sickness in captivity. But they also learnt that they were not forgotten and that defiance, and even escape, was possible.
The 4,000 prisoners of the Great War were very few compared to the 60,000 killed and 150,000 wounded, and they remained overlooked for generations.
Second World War
About 8,000 Australians became prisoners of war of the Germans and Italians in the Second World War. They included airmen and soldiers of the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions.
Most remained captive for more than three years. They endured cold, hunger and a spirit-crushing boredom. All put their lives on hold while awaiting a fate they could not control.
Over 22,000 Australian servicemen and almost forty nurses were captured by the Japanese. Most were captured early in 1942 when Japanese forces captured Malaya, Singapore, New Britain, and the Netherlands East Indies. Hundreds of Australian civilians were also interned.
Thirty Australian servicemen were captured by North Korean or Chinese forces in the Korean War, 1950–53.
Five men endured captivity for over two years. Flight Lieutenant Gordon Harvey was the first Australian captured, in January 1951; Corporal Don Buck, Private Tom Hollis, Private Robert Parker, and Private Keith Gwyther were captured in the first half of 1951. They endured long years of brutal treatment for their “uncooperative” attitude.
Prisoners in Korea suffered many of the same trials as those of the Japanese – neglect, hunger and brutality – but in the biting cold of a Korean winter. They also endured attacks on their minds. In a war fought between rival ideologies, “brainwashing” was used to try to turn prisoners from the cause they served.