After months of work treating and reproducing individual pieces, the complex structure which supports the Boulton Paul turret has been trial fitted. It was great to see all the separate items come together. These parts, after final undercoating, will now be riveted into the airframe permanently. Rear fuselage skins can then be rolled, and the Boulton Paul turret fitted.
Fried shrimps and scallops, ham “a la King” and lemon sponge: these were the dishes that six Australian Army nurses would dream of while they were held captive in Japan during the Second World War.
Instead, the prisoners received a monotonous diet consisting mostly of rice and soya bean soup, and stew with questionable pieces of meat. On the eighth day of each month – known as “degradation” or “humiliation” day – the meagre vegetables that were issued were thrown into a cesspit and the women made to retrieve them; occasionally they were made to eat scraps from a pig bucket.
The nurses’ ordeal, which was to last three years and seven months, began 70 years ago when they surrendered to the Japanese after the invasion of Rabaul on 23 January 1942. Rabaul was the administrative capital of Australia’s Mandated Territory of New Guinea. It had a strategically important, deep-water harbour and airfields that were well-positioned for reconnaissance and bombing sorties over the Japanese naval bases in the Caroline Islands. But few resources were allocated to the protection of the garrison, and the men who tried gallantly to protect it from attack were overwhelmed by a much larger invading force.
The Australian army nurses were mostly country girls who had sailed from Sydney on the converted troopship Zealandia in April 1941. The nurses were the only servicewomen on the island and served with the 2/10th Field Ambulance, which consisted of two doctors and 20 male orderlies.
The army hospital in Rabaul had been evacuated on 22 January and transferred to the Roman Catholic mission at Vunapope. The army doctors didn’t stay on and took with them the ambulances, most of the medical supplies and the orderlies. The head nurse, Sister Kathleen Parker, and an Anglican chaplain surrendered on behalf of the hospital when the Japanese arrived.
The nurses were made to stand for hours in the blazing sun with Japanese machine-guns trained on them. That day the Japanese killed about 20 patients, as well as the chaplain. The army nurses expected to be killed too; instead they were imprisoned in a convent within the mission until July 1942, along with a small number of missionary and administrative nurses and one civilian woman. Some Australian soldiers were also imprisoned in the mission.
In early July the nurses and other internees – including the Australian soldiers -- were taken by ship to Yokohama, Japan. The women spent most of the next two years under guard in the Yokohama Amateur Rowing Club, not allowed to write to their families. At first, the conditions were tolerable: they had clean toilets and cold showers were always available; hot baths were occasionally allowed. There were ping-pong sets, badminton and cards, and during the warmer months they swam in the club pool. But conditions declined after the first year in captivity: the women were regularly slapped and occasionally they were lined up at gunpoint. Red Cross officials were stopped from visiting them. They suffered greatly in the extreme cold of the winter months: their bed coverings were flimsy and heating within the building was poor or non-existent, so to stay warm they slept two to a bed.
Food was always on their minds, and a recipe book compiled by Sister Eileen Callaghan and held at the Australian War Memorial reveals just what they desired: cheese dishes, hearty roasts, fresh salads, luscious desserts, and cakes.
Nurse Daisy Keast recalled that after her release, her first letter home to her parents demanded that her first meal when she arrived home be roast pork and steamed date pudding.
“That’s all we thought about and talked about,” she said. “My family said we never talked to them at all, all we talked about was food.”
The women were moved in April 1944 to a farmhouse at Totsuka, about 50 kilometres from Yokohama and with a view of Mount Fuji. The house had no heating or showers so they washed from buckets. They were made dig air-raid trenches for the Japanese, and in winter had to shovel paths in the snow. They grew weaker from hunger and suffered deficiency diseases such as beri-beri.
The women had scant news from the outside world, but by 1945 they could tell the war was going badly for the Japanese. They watched the bombing raids over Yokohama and Tokyo. On 17 August, 1945, the internees were told that peace had been declared. The women were free, but afraid of reprisals, they remained in the compound. Food suddenly improved, a doctor visited and gave them medicine, and they also received coats to cover their tattered nurses’ uniforms.
On 31 August, after three years and seven months of imprisonment, two of the army nurses intercepted an American convoy and were finally rescued from Totsuka. They were flown to Okinawa Island and then to Manila. They were among the first prisoners of war to arrive home, most of them arriving in Australia on 13 September 1945. Sister Callaghan, who had contracted tuberculosis and received no treatment, arrived back in Australia one month later. She died in March 1954 from continuing problems related to the disease.
The nurses had survived because of a determination to not let the Japanese defeat them. “If we had given up we wouldn’t have come back, it’s as simple as that,” said Sister Marjory Anderson. “If we gave up hope we’d have just died.”
Sources and further reading
Catherine Kenny, Captives : Australian army nurses in Japanese prison camps (University of Queensland Press, 1986)
Second World War Official Histories, Volume VI – The New Guinea Offensives (1st edition, 1961)
Rupert Goodman, Our War Nurses: The History of the Royal Australian Army Nursing Corps 1902-1988 (Boolarong Publications, 1988)
Michael (Mike) Coleridge will always be remembered for the photograph he took on 26 August 1967 of a group of soldiers of 5 Platoon, B Company, 7RAR, waiting for an Iroquois helicopter to land and take them back to Nui Dat at the end of Operation Ulmarra. This photograph has become an Australian icon of the Vietnam War and is graphically featured on the Vietnam National Memorial on ANZAC Parade in Canberra. But this is just one of 558 still photographs and 54 films taken in Vietnam by Mike Coleridge in the Australian War Memorial's collection.
Coleridge was born in Slovenia on 11 July 1933. At the end of the Second World War his parents' marriage failed, and he accompanied his mother to Austria, before migrating to Australia as an unaccompanied 16-year-old. As a young man, he worked in a range of manual jobs in Sydney, always struggling to make his junior wages cover his expenses. At 18 he found work on a property in rural New South Wales, where his circumstances improved and his life assumed some degree of normality. A young man looking for adventure, he eventually found his way to Darwin. Life in the Northern Territory was exciting, and during this time he learnt to fly and was awarded a private pilot's license.
In 1957 Coleridge enlisted in the Australian Army, hoping to enter the fledgling Army Aviation Corps. Believing the recruiting sergeant's assurances that he could transfer after completing his recruit training, he signed up; however, his lack of formal education proved a barrier to army pilot training and he found himself a gunner in the Royal Australian Artillery Corps. He never realised his ambition to fly. Gunner Coleridge was posted to Malaysia in 1961, and during his tour he privately made films for the British Army using his own cameras.
On his return to Australia in 1963, Coleridge sought a transfer to the Royal Australian Army Education Corps as a public relations photographer. During this time he married and had two children. But his marriage failed, leaving him with his two children of his own and another his wife had brought to the marriage. Coleridge, now a single father, was posted to Vietnam. With much difficulty, and without any support from the army, he arranged for a family in Melbourne to care for his children. Sergeant Coleridge arrived in Vietnam on 19 November 1966, and although posted to Headquarters in Saigon, he spent most of his time at the new 1st Australian Task Force (1ATF) base at Nui Dat. Over the next 12 months he recorded the activities of 5RAR, 6RAR and 7RAR and other elements of 1ATF. There were no facilities at the 1ATF base for a photographer, so he constructed a makeshift darkroom, in which he developed his own films.
Coleridge operated independently, accompanying soldiers on operations, seeking out images to satisfy the needs of the Public Relations Officer in Saigon and taking many photographs in response to the conflict that surrounded him, including many shots of Australian soldiers moving through the Vietnamese landscape. Like many photographers of the time, he always carried a number of cameras, including 35 mm and 120 still cameras and frequently a 16 mm Bell and Howell movie camera. Using his own initiative, Coleridge started using colour film in both his still and movie cameras. However, the army was geared to providing the print media and TV with black-and-white images, and so initially it didn't support Coleridge's use of colour. Because the army only supplied black-and-white film, colour film and colour stock either had to be traded with other photographers or purchased privately. Colour film had to be processed privately in Saigon, and as most of his salary was spent supporting his three children back in Australia this must have been very difficult for him. Many of Coleridge's colour film stills, and the colour films of the photographers who followed him, were duplicated in black-and-white for use in the media. Coleridge's persistence was eventually rewarded by the Army Public Relations Directorate in Canberra: a signal sent to Saigon in September 1967 acknowledged both the high standard of the colour footage and the fact that Coleridge had provided the colour stock personally, and advised that replacement stock would be dispatched from Canberra.
After completing his tour of Vietnam on 21 November 1967, Coleridge was posted to Melbourne. His period of enlistment had expired and he resisted the army's efforts to keep him, realising how difficult it would be to continue serving as a single father.
Over the decades that followed the war, Mike Coleridge traveled the countryside, finding work wherever he could. He worked for a time as a photographer for the Melbourne Truth and at other jobs, always supporting his two children. He moved to Darwin and then, in the early 1970s, to North Queensland, where he drove steam locos in the cane fields; from there it was on to Western Australia, where he mined gold, before moving to New South Wales. He and his children settled in Canberra in 1984, where he worked for a time as an attendant at the Australian War Memorial. With his children now grown up, he found some relief from his responsibilities and began growing walnuts on a small property at Jerangle, New South Wales. His final move was to a property on the outskirts of Braidwood, where he raised Angus cattle.
Like many Vietnam veterans, Coleridge experienced a range of health issues, including first cancer of the bladder and more recently lung cancer. Just before Christmas 2011 he had a bad fall in his house and was taken by ambulance to the Braidwood Hospital. He was transferred to hospital in Canberra, where an X-ray revealed he had two fractured vertebrae in his lower back.
Michael Coleridge passed away peacefully in hospital in the early hours of 10 January 2012. He is survived by his son, David, daughter, Rhonda, and granddaughter, Julia.
Get the most out of summer in the national capital with blockbuster exhibitions and family programs at
Canberra’s top attractions.
From 1 January to 1 February 2012 look for the Summer Bonus Card brochure at selected cultural institutions, Canberra Centre and the Canberra Visitor and Information Centre.
Detach the card from the brochure, slip it into your wallet and enjoy bonus benefits wherever you go.
Simply present your card at each attraction for great rewards, such as two-for-one offers, free posters, recipe booklets and parking vouchers, and special offers at the Canberra Centre,
while stocks last.
Free recipe booklet
The Australian War Memorial is a special place for all Australians. Over summer come along with your family and friends to discover the stories of Australia’s wartime nurses, explore world famous galleries and take part in our free family programs.
Present your card at the Memorial Shop to receive a free 48-page colour recipe booklet: Australia’s Wartime Kitchen.
Special offers from over 50 stores
Experience Canberra’s premier shopping attraction and cultural hub for fashion, dining and entertainment – Canberra Centre.
Located on Bunda Street, in the heart of the city, Myer and David Jones lead an outstanding collection of Australian and International fashion labels, along with a stunning range of specialty stores. Experience local and international cuisine at Canberra Centre’s North Quarter, where dining and entertainment culture thrive day and night with an array of award winning restaurants and Premium Class Dendy Cinemas.
Special Offer: Present your card at the Customer Service Lounge to join our VIP shoppers’ club and receive special offers from over 50 stores, plus all visitors residing outside a 100km radius will receive a bonus one day parking pass. Proof of residency is mandatory. One pass per person during the promotion period.
Encounter paintings by great Italian artists in the stunning Renaissance exhibition and present your card at the Cloak Room to receive a Renaissance exhibition posters, free.
Summer is your chance to see the Renaissance exhibition on display until 9 April 2012. The National Gallery of Australia shows seventy paintings by great Italian artists such as Raphael, Botticelli, Bellini and Titian. The exhibition highlights the amazing art of Early and High Renaissance Italy. These treasures from Bergamo will only be displayed in Canberra.
Present your card at the Book Shop for a 15% discount on current National Library exhibition catalogues: Handwritten and Library of Dreams.Bonus Handwritten poster. While stocks last.
Handwritten: ten centuries of manuscript treasures is an extraordinary exhibition featuring 100 unique manuscript treasures from the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin (Berlin State Library).
Spanning more than 1000 years of history, the exhibition includes exquisite illuminated manuscripts, rare letters, sketches and documents and priceless musical scores, each handwritten by major figures in literature, religion, science, exploration, philosophy and music. The exhibition is being shown only at the National Library of Australia so book your free ticket at nla.gov.au/exhibitions/handwritten.
Buy one tour, get one free
Learn more when you take a guided Museum tour showcasing Phar lap’s heart and the Holden Prototype. Tours are presented daily and last for one hour. Present this card to the Museum Information Desk, purchase one guided Museum tour and get another of equal value free.
The National Museum of Australia is a place where we can get to know the real, the treasured, the surprising and the inspirational objects from Australia's history - from a piece of ochre that was used to make Aboriginal art over 50,000 years ago, to Phar Lap's unusually large heart and the Holden Prototype No. 1.
The Museum is a place that celebrates our people and our culture of storytelling, where we come together to share stories of our unique and distinctive nation. Come and join the conversation. Be part of the story.
Note: Not to be used in conjunction with any other offer.
Q Shop discounts
Present your card at the Q Shop to receive great discounts. Buy a 3D art bookmark for $2.50 (normally $6.95) and/or a Questacon solar-powered key ring for $2.50 (normally $5.95).
Limit of two items per customer.
Questacon’s brand new gallery Q Lab allows visitors to discover the fascination of scientific inquiry. Visitors can watch live science demonstrations and participate in hands-on activities with Questacon’s science communicators and visiting scientists.
With different hands-on activities every day, visitors to Q Lab can; make rocks float, use food dye with flowers to show capillary action, experiment with chemistry, see the microscopic world and extract DNA from peas.
My name is Romy Turner. I am a work experience student from Canberra Girls Grammar School at the Memorial for this week. As part of my work experience I had to research an item, a trench sign, from the Memorial's collection.
The trench sign ‘To Stinking Farm & Currie Ave’ was collected during the First World War by Lieutenant Colonel John Basil St. Vincent Welch, whilst he was serving as part of the 13thField Ambulance in Belgium. Welch arrived in Marseilles on 13 July 1916 as a member of the Australian Field Ambulance. He was appointed the commanding officer of the 13thField Ambulance and was stationed around the village of Messines, which would be the site of the Battle of Messines 11 months later. Stationed at Kandahar Farm, Welch assisted in this battle, tending to the wounded as they came back from the front and organising the transportation of the men further back the line to the field hospitals.
As Stinking Farm and Currie Avenue were part of the British territory, English trench signs were used to identify the large network of trenches. They both played small parts in the Battle of Messines, which took place on 7 June 1917. The farm was 800 metres behind the British front line and acted as a holding station for reinforcements awaiting orders to proceed towards the frontier, whilst Currie Avenue was one of the many back line trenches that led to Stinking Farm and eventually the front line.
Welch served on the Western Front until September 1917 and had ample opportunity to collect this sign during his travels up and down the front line. In February 1918, when he left England to return home he brought his war mementos with him. John Basil St. Vincent Welch died on 21 May 1920 as a result of his war service. His name is listed on the Roll of Honour.
My name's Sean Limn, and I've been doing work experience at the War Memorial for the past week. One of my tasks whilst at the Memorial was to research a collection item, a piece of an old tent found at Gallipoli in 1919. The tent piece was found at Rest Gully, and is from a hospital tent left during the evacuation in December 1915. The tent was left behind as part of the ruse to prevent the Turks from realising that an evacuation was taking place.
In July 1915, a temporary hospital was established in Rest Gully in response to a breakout of Cholera at Cape Helles. No outbreaks of the disease were reported at Anzac but the hospital remained to accommodate other ailments and conditions like diarrhoea. Initially Rest Gully was unsafe for tents to be erected, and it wasn't until much later in the campaign that tents were used there.
The evacuation of Field Ambulances began on 11 December, when they left the peninsula, taking their "more valuable equipment" but leaving their tents standing, to make it look like the hospital was still there.
At the time of the evacuation these tents were used by the 5th Field Ambulance, who were evacuated on 16 December to Mudros. By 1919 all that was left of the tents was a muddy, weathered piece of rope and canvas. It has a large eyelet incorporated into the rope, which would have presumably helped secure the tent to the ground.
While not much of the tent is left, it is still an interesting relic from the evacuation at Anzac, as it illustrates what had to be left behind.
The Boulton Paul Turret was the first of the major componemts to undergo restoration, with work commencing in late 2009 on a large pile of turret pieces. Over an eight month period, the parts were individually treated, and the turret slowly took shape. The frame is a complex assembly, with literally hundreds of small brackets, all rivited together to make up the cupola, or frame. The transparencies were moulded over size, and each piece required trimming to fit. The transparencies will not be fitted until after the turret has been lifted into the aircraft. This is to avoid any possiblity of cracking the trancperencies from felxing of the cupola due to the weight of the turret assembly during the lift.
The last battalion to be evacuated from Tobruk was Bryant's battalion, the 2/13th in December 1941. Finally, German General Erwin Rommel and his Afrikakorps were forced to abandon the Siege, falling back towards Tripoli.
The Australians had courageously and collectively defended the town for 8 months and established themselves in the annals of Australia’s military history.
During the campaign, 832 Australians were killed, 2,177 were wounded and 941 were taken prisoner.
For more information, go to: /wartime/54/james-great-siege/
Edmund Crawford Lecky
Edmund Crawford Lecky was promoted to Captain on 24 July 1942, then to Major on 27 May 1944. He was awarded the MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire) on 9 March 1945 for his work in communications at the landing of Finschafen in Papua New Guinea, 1943.
For more information on Finschafen go to:
Edmund Crawford Lecky died on 2 May 1981.
Arthur Francis Bryant
Arthur Francis Bryant returned to Australia after the war, where he married Peggy, the love of his life. Together, the couple started a family and opened and ran a sandwich shop, first in Sydney and later in Cremorne.
After retiring late in life, Arthur suffered from constant strokes and was cared for by his wife for the last 10 years of his life. His daughter describes him as ‘a very gentle man’.
Bryant, Lecky, Cosgriff and the other 'Rats of Tobruk' were, this year honoured in a dedicatory exhibition entitled Rats of Tobruk, 1941. The next exhibition, Nurses: from Zululand to Afghanistan, which tells the story of military nurses and their unique contribution in wartime, will open on 2 December 2011.
The Australian War Memorial holds T-shirts from the numerous Peace Keeping missions in which Australians have served. A usually inexpensive and useful type of souvenir, the T-shirts are often humorous and visually creative. They are an example of how soldiers have adapted a civilian item of clothing to a deployment context.
This T-shirt was purchased by Lieutenant Duncan John Perryman, RAN, while serving in East Timor as part of the International Force East Timor (INTERFET) in 1999-2000. Screen printed on the back is a locomotive, the body is made of a Victoria Bitter (VB) beer can, and another can is carried in the tender. Around the edge is a yellow circle with black lettering 'TOUCAN EXPRESS EAST TIMOR'. The image is repeated in a smaller form on the front of the T-shirt over the left breast. Underneath it is printed 'DILI CANTEEN'. REL28051 Associated with Sergeant William John Guthrie, RAAF, who served in East Timor with INTERFET's 1 Media Support Unit during 1999. On the front of the T-shirt is a comical unit logo consisting of a heraldic-style shield emblazoned with a pair of wings, the head of a bird, a commercial-grade video camera, and a dagger, underscored with `FORT ALAMO'. The unit's motto `FIRST TO GO LAST TO KNOW' is below this on a scroll. `EAST TIMOR 99' is printed on the right sleeve.
Acquired by Chief Superintendent Geoffrey Alan Hazel in Mozambique in 1994, when he was the contingent commander for the second Australian Contingent. Screen printed onto the front of the T-shirt, are the letters 'ONUMOZ' [United Nations Operation in Mozambique]. Beneath this is a brown coloured bulldog wearing a United Nations blue beret and white badge, giving a thumbs up sign with a black gloved paw. Beneath the bulldog is printed 'TUDO BEM' (Brazilian Portuguese for 'how are you') in yellow lettering with black outlines.
On the front of the T-shirt is a comical unit logo consisting of a heraldic-style shield emblazoned with a pair of wings, the head of a bird, a commercial-grade video camera, and a dagger, underscored with `FORT ALAMO'. The unit's motto `FIRST TO GO LAST TO KNOW' is below this on a scroll. `EAST TIMOR 99' is printed on the right sleeve.
We know that some of you out there are neglecting your razors in the name of raising money for a good cause, even some of the good men here at the War Memorial have put their hand up to cultivate magnificent moustaches. So we thought we’d bring you some MOtivational photos from our archives, to show you that competitive MO growing has been going on for decades!
During the Second World War, naval ships such as the HMAS Perth and Shropshire held beard growing competitions. Above, a champion beard grower, Able Bodied Seaman Cooper, shows off his award winning crop aboard the Perth; and on the Shropshire, Able Seaman Evans has his beard trimmed by fellow champion growers.
In other forces, where beards were perhaps not allowed, we start to see some imaginative moustache examples. This one below is an example of one of the longest, grown in Japan in 1946.
During the Korean War, soldiers took great pride in the cultivation of their moustaches, waxing them especially for the occasion of having their portraits taken. Official Photographer, Phillip J Hobson, took a series of portraits of men and their moustaches.
Private Moore, seen below receiving a haircut from a Korean barber, worries about the fate of his moustache, which, when waxed, is an impressive 6 inches from tip to tip.
Happy Mo growing!