Fragment of officer's tunic collar : 16 Battalion, AIF, Bloody Angle, Gallipoli

Place Middle East: Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Dardanelles, Gallipoli, Anzac Area (Gallipoli), Quinn's Post Area, Bloody Angle
Accession Number RELAWM07839.012
Collection type Heraldry
Object type Heraldry
Physical description Oxidised brass, Wool
Maker Unknown
Place made Australia
Date made c 1915
Conflict First World War, 1914-1918

Remains of a proper right side Australian officer's tunic collar. Attached to it are a Rising Sun badge and three other badges to its right, reading '16 / INF'. Each badge has two lugs held in place, with the exception of the numeral '1', by split pins. The open edge of the collar bears a brass hook which would have have fastened into a corresponding eyelet on the other side of the collar.

History / Summary

This piece of tunic collar was found on 10 January 1919 by Lieutenant William Hopkin James, who was working on Gallipoli, leading a small party from the Australian War Records Section, taking photographs and collecting items for the national collection. James found fragments of uniforms and bones in a gully between Quinn's Post and Dead Man's Ridge, leading up to the Bloody Angle. They were the remains of members of the 16th Battalion (Bn), who had attempted to extend the Australian line, to the left of Quinn's Post from 2 to 3 May 1915.

The 16th Bn landed at Gallipoli in the evening of 25 April 1915. Much of the battalion occupied the position that became known as Pope's Hill. They remained there until the evening of 30 April, when they were relieved by the 15th Bn and went to Rest Gully, where they spent time digging in to protect themselves from Turkish snipers.

On 2 May the battalion was ordered to the front line, to the left of Quinn's Post, where they were to advance to a position that was later called the Bloody Angle. The 13th Bn was to extend its line to the left, joining with the New Zealand Otago Bn, who were to attack Baby 700. The 15th Bn were to take part from Pope's Hill.

The attack took place in the evening of 2 May. After the bombardment of the Turkish positions ceased, the 16th Bn made their way up the steep side of the valley, towards the Bloody Angle. The Turks held their fire until the battalion reached the top of the ridge, then directed heavy fire opened on it, mostly from their positions at The Nek and the Chessboard. The battalion fought and dug in throughout the night, extending the trench line from Quinn's Post. Some of their men found an abandoned Turkish trench on the crest of the Bloody Angle and occupied it.

During the attack the Otago Bn failed to reach their objective at Baby 700 and were forced to dig in near The Nek. The 13th Bn positioned themselves on the other side of the gully, to the left of the 16th Bn, but each battalion was uncertain of each other's location and could not join up.

At dawn on 3 May, the New Zealanders withdrew under heavy fire and the Turks occupied their line. The Turks in front of the 16th Bn attacked, but were driven back. The 16th Bn then attempted to attack a Turkish position, from which heavy rifle fire was coming, but the Turks were alerted to the attack and their machine gun fire from Baby 700 raked the line. In addition, nearby Turks threw bombs and expended heavy fire on the men of the 16th Bn. The dead lay thickly between their respective positions.

As the sky lightened, the Turks crept through the scrub towards the 16th Bn and inflicted further heavy casualties. Although attempts were made to reinforce the 16th Bn, the Turkish fire made it impossible to reach them. The battalion gradually withdrew through the day, and the Turks took over their trench line. Having lost support from both their left and right flanks, the 13th Bn then withdrew during the night.

The 16th Bn suffered very high casualties at the Bloody Angle. Entering the action with 17 officers and 620 men, they lost eight officers and 330 men. The battalion's dead remained unburied until after the war, when their remains were recovered by the Graves Registration Unit and buried in the newly established Quinn's Post cemetery nearby.

When unit titles were introduced in September 1914, officers were instructed to wear the unit titles on their collars (beside their Rising Sun badges), while other ranks wore them on their shoulder straps. Several officers were killed at the Bloody Angle on 2 May. They were: Lieutenant Kieran Leopold Anderson, Lieutenant Ernest Otto Alfred Bruns, Second Lieutenant Harry James Burton, Lieutenant Cyril Arthur Geddes, Lieutenant William Buchanan Kerr, Captain James Miller and Captain Harold Alfred Southern. This collar came from one of their tunics.