Grenade Howitzer Mark 1 (Garland Mortar)

Place Middle East: Ottoman Empire, Turkey, Dardanelles, Gallipoli, Anzac Area (Gallipoli)
Accession Number RELAWM00373
Collection type Technology
Object type Artillery
Physical description Metal, Wood
Location Main Bld: First World War Gallery: The Anzac Story: Gallipoli: Life at Anzac 1
Maker Unknown
Place made United Kingdom: England
Date made c .1914
Conflict First World War, 1914-1918

Smooth bore trench mortar with fixed barrel set at approximately 45 degrees. The barrel is made from steel which is attached to a brass breech piece with powder recess, bolted onto a wooden block that acts as a mortar base plate. The barrel is secured to the breech by means of an iron stirrup. The gun is fired by an ordinary friction tube, by means of a foot lever. A range table made from brass is attached to the wooden base plate with graduations in yards. The barrel has a dark brown finish. The wooden base plate has been painted with varnish but is well worn. There is some corrosion on the barrel and metal parts, and the barrel has been cut down to approximately half of its original length. The base plate has impact handling marks on its surface. There are no manufacturer's markings on the mortar.

History / Summary

This British-designed and made Grenade Howitzer Mark 1 (also known as the Garland trench-mortar) was a primitive indirect fire weapon which was used by Australian troops of the 3rd Light Horse Brigade at Russell's Top during the Gallipoli campaign. They threw a cast-iron percussion grenade weighing about 1.3 kilogram bomb to a range between 50 to 250 metres. These weapons were used alongside four Japanese designed and made mortars which were used to fire into the Turkish trenches and positions surrounding the Gallipoli beach-head. The Mark 1 version of this weapon was superseded by the Mark II which was significantly more sophisticated: it could be fired by either a friction tube or a shot-gun cartridge case, and the barrel was able to be elevated and traversed.