Vice Admiral William Rooke Creswell
|Birth date:||20 July 1852|
|Death date:||20 April 1933|
|Final rank:||Vice Admiral|
|Conflict:||China, 1900-1901 (Boxer Uprising)|
First World War, 1914-1918
|Unit:||Royal Australian Navy|
William Creswell, a senior naval officer and the driving force behind the establishment of the RAN, was born at Gibraltar on 20 July 1852. He was 13 years old in 1865 when he began his naval career as a cadet on the Royal Navy's training ship Britannia. He was promoted to mid-shipman in 1867and in 1871 became a sub-lieutenant.
Having already served in the Channel Fleet, Creswell was transferred to the China Station. In 1873 he was shot in the hip during a skirmish with pirates off Malaya but remained at his post. His bravery won him promotion to lieutenant but his wound meant returning to England to recuperate. Creswell's next sea-going appointment, to the East India Station, was followed by a period in Zanzibar, where he commanded a flotilla involved in suppressing the slave trade. Illness, however, again forced his return to England.
Creswell retired from the Royal Navy in 1878 and, seeking to become a pastoralist, he emigrated to Australia in 1879. A stint in the Northern Territory, however, convinced Creswell that he was ill-suited to outback life. During a visit to Adelaide in 1885 he met a former naval colleague and was convinced to take up an appointment as First Lieutenant on South Australia's only naval vessel, HMCS Protector, a posting he very much enjoyed.
Creswell soon began agitating for the establishment of an Australian naval force to supplement the Royal Navy squadron based in Sydney. In mid-1895 he reached the rank of captain; by 1899 he was arguing strongly for an Australian navy. On 1 May 1900 he was appointed Commandant of the Queensland naval forces but was soon released to command Protector on its deployment to China to assist in suppressing the Boxer Rebellion.
After Federation, Creswell's lobbying for an Australian navy gained momentum. He was regarded by many as Australia's chief spokesman on naval matters, hence his appointment in February 1904 to the new position of Naval Officer Commanding the Commonwealth Naval Forces. He had retained his position in Queensland and accepted the role of Naval Commandant in Victoria but his energies were primarily focused on the national navy.
Alarmed at Germany's growing naval might by 1909, Australia's admiralty sought to dramatically increase Australia's naval strength. Creswell was promoted to rear admiral in the service of the newly created Royal Australian Navy.
The fact that Australia's navy was ready for service when the First World War began was largely the result of Creswell's hard work and lobbying. During the war he was involved as an administrator in ship construction, the development of shore support, and the arranging of convoys. After the war he worked on developing a defence program for Australia, focussing mainly on ensuring the continued strengthening of the RAN.
Considered the father of the RAN, Creswell retired with the rank of vice admiral and took up farming in Victoria. He died on 20 April 1933.
Rolls and Awards
- Rank: Captain
- Conflict: China, 1900-1901 (Boxer Uprising)
- Unit: Royal Australian Navy
- Conflict: First World War, 1914-1918
THESIS EXAMINES CAREER OF VICE ADMIRAL SIR WILLIAM ROOKE CRESWELL, INVOLVEMENT IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN NAVAL BRIGADE, HMAS "PROTECTOR", COLONIAL NAVAL FORCES, COASTAL DEFENCE FORCE, THE AUSTRALIAN NAVAL BOARD. PHD MONASH UNIVERSITY, 1976PRMF0045
REAR-ADMIRAL SIR W.R. CRESWELL. (DONATED BY MR. C.E. W BEAN, OFFICIAL HISTORIAN)J03055
ADELAIDE (MITCHAM) CIRCA 1890. SA GOVERNOR WITH VARIOUS MILITARY FIGURES INCLUDING FRONT ROW RIGHT LIEUTENANT COMMANDER (LATER VICE ADMIRAL) SIR WILLIAM ROOKE CRESWELL KBE. (PHOTOGRAPHER: S. G. SPINK.) (NAVAL HISTORICAL COLLECTION)P00444.185
CAPTAIN WILLIAM ROOKE CRESWELL AS NAVAL COMMANDANT QUEENSLAND 1900. (NAVAL HISTORICAL COLLECTION)P00444.162
ADELAIDE, SA. C. 1896. CAPTAIN W. R. CRESWELL, (CENTRE) NAVAL COMMANDANT OF THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCES AND FOUR NAVAL OFFICERS OF THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE FORCE STANDING BESIDE AN 1883 MODEL GATLING GUN AT PORT ADELAIDE. (NAVAL HISTORICAL COLLECTION) (FORMERLY Y121)306824
Portrait of Captain William Rooke Creswell (1852-1933). He became Naval Commandant of Queensland in 1900. In the same year he commanded the ship Protector during the Boxer Rebellion. From 1899 he urged the formation of an Australian Navy, and in 1904 was promoted to be Director of the Commonwealth...106183
Portrait of Rear Admiral Sir William Rooke Creswell KCMG KBE CMG (1852-1933). He became Naval Commandant of Queensland in 1900. In the same year he commanded the ship Protector during the Boxer Rebellion. From 1899 he urged the formation of an Australian Navy, and in 1904 was promoted to be...106182
Portrait of Vice Admiral Sir William Rooke Creswell, KCMG, KBE, RAN, First Naval Member of the Australian Naval Board, commanded HMCS Protector as a member of the Fleet during the Boxer Rebellion, and first advocated an Australian naval force, then administered it when it became a reality (wearing...ART40919
Triangular navy felt souvenir with two suspension loops on the hoist. Screen printed in yellow with 'HMAS CRESWELL' and the ship's badge showing a cutlass blade surmounted by an open book with the letters 'RANC' (Royal Australian Naval College) all within a rope circle surmounted by a naval crown...REL36713
|Date of birth||1852-07-20||Gibraltar.|
|Other||1865||Began cadetship on the Royal Navy's Training ship Britannia.|
|Date promoted||1867||Promoted to midshipman.|
|Date promoted||1871||Promoted to sub-lieutenant.|
|Date wounded||1873||Shot in a skirmish with pirates off Malaya. Promoted to lieutenant.|
|Date of discharge||1878||Creswell retired from the Royal Navy.|
|Other||1879||Emigrated to Australia.|
|Date and unit at appointment (Officers)||1885||Appointed as first lieutenant on South Australia's HMCS Protector.|
|Date promoted||1895||Appointed captain.|
|Date promoted||1900-05-01||He was appointed commandant of the Queensland Naval Forces.|
|Date of embarkation||1900-08-06|
|Date of return||1901-01-06|
|Date promoted||1904-02||Appointed to position of naval officer commanding Commonwealth naval forces.|
|Date promoted||1909||Appointed rear admiral in the new created Royal Australian Navy.|
|Date of death||1933-04-20|