Senior secondary

The Memorial Boxes are an ideal teaching resource for First and Second World War depth studies, in addition to exploration of Australia’s involvement in post-45 conflict and peacekeeping operations. The boxes allow students to gain a deeper historical understanding about the causes, effects, and significance of these events from a range of perspectives. The hands-on resources will also advance students’ skills in interpreting and evaluating information from various sources as well as drawing conclusions about their usefulness based on their origin, purpose, and context.

*HASS refers to humanities and social sciences

Modern history



Historical skills

Unit 3: Modern nations in the 20th century, historical knowledge and understanding

Unit 4: The modern world since 1945, historical knowledge and understanding

Senior secondary

Identify links between events to understand the nature and significance of causation, change, and continuity over time (ACHMH098)

The nature and scope of Australia’s war effort in Europe, Asia, and the Pacific (1939–1945) (ACHMH124)


An overview, as background, of the nature of the world order at the end of the Second World War, colonialism in the Eastern communist bloc and Western capitalist bloc, and the emerging role of the United Nations (ACHMH186)

Senior secondary

Identify, locate, and organise relevant information from a range of primary and secondary sources (ACHMH102)

The impact of the rise of communism, its influence on the election of Robert Menzies and the Coalition in 1949, and the contrasting economic and social policies offered at the 1949 election (ACHMH126)

The involvement of Australia in the Cold War, with particular reference to foreign policy, nuclear testing at Maralinga, and the war in Vietnam (ACHMH189)


Senior secondary

Identify the origin, purpose, and context of historical sources (ACHMH104)


The immediate postwar effects of Japan’s defeat, including opposition to democratic government, political division within the Japanese military, opposition to the Allied occupation after the war, and the changes introduced during the American occupation (ACHMH145)

Displacement arising from conflict and persecution (1975–2010) – for example, people fleeing from communism in Asia (Vietnam War) and civil wars in Africa (Horn of Africa) (ACHMH213)


Senior secondary

Evaluate the reliability, usefulness, and contestable nature of sources to develop informed judgements that support a historical argument (ACHMH106)



Reasons for, and consequences of, other conflicts in the Middle East – for example, the Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), the Iran/Iraq War (1980–1988), the Iranian Revolution (1979), and Gulf Wars I (1990–1991) and II (2003) (ACHMH218)

Senior secondary

Analyse and account for the different perspectives of individuals and groups in the past (ACHMH107)


The role and outcomes of the United Nations as peacekeeper in specific conflicts and disputes – for example, Korea (1954–1955), the former Yugoslavia (after 1989); Rwanda (1993–1996); Cambodia up to the first elections (1993); and East Timor/Timor-Leste (1999–2008) (ACHMH225)

Senior secondary

Evaluate critically different historical interpretations of the past, how they evolved, and how they are shaped by the historian’s perspective (ACHMH108)


The contribution of Australia as a peacekeeper since the Second World War, including the military, civilian police, mine-clearers, weapons inspectors, and diplomats (ACHMH226)


Senior secondary

Evaluate contested views about the past to understand the provisional nature of historical knowledge and to arrive at reasoned and supported conclusions (ACHMH109)


The changing nature of global terrorism to 2010, as represented by the objectives, methods, and influence of terrorist groups, including state-based terrorism, anticolonial conflicts (such as Ireland and the United Kingdom), and international tensions (such as Al Qaeda and Western countries) (ACHMH227)

Senior secondary



The nature of responses to and the success of governments and the UN in conflicts and threats in the post–Cold War period (1991–2010), including national counter-terrorism actions, efforts to ensure disarmament and non-nuclear proliferation, and the resolutions of the UN Security Council  (ACHMH228)