“Hanging on”, living amid filth, sickness, disease, and death, while under constant threat of enemy fire, was an ordeal. Having left home seeking adventure and possible glory, troops on Gallipoli found themselves dirty, thirsty, constantly digging and tunnelling, and living in cramped dug-outs.
Sanitation quickly became a major concern. The lack of water, the lack of variety and nutrition in the food available, and the harsh climate added to the problems already presented by the proximity of dead bodies and plagues of flies. The spread of disease became alarming. For a time more than ten per cent of the force was being evacuated weekly.
Beyond the medical facilities on Anzac, Australian doctors, nurses and other staff attended to the sick, wounded, and dying on hospital ships and in hospitals on the island of Lemnos and in Egypt.